The declared means of the Protocol for achieving the objectives (referring to the internal market of the European Union and the customs union) are defined three paragraphs later on the same page: negotiators from the United Kingdom and the European Union have agreed on the principle of a new protocol on Ireland and Northern Ireland and on the political declaration. Early in the negotiations leading up to the UK`s withdrawal from the EU, the UK and the EU recognised the unique situation of Ireland and Northern Ireland. They agreed that a specific solution was needed to reconcile the different interests. Article 1, paragraph 3 of the Northern Ireland Protocol sets its objectives: paragraph 50 also stresses that there will be no new controls on goods and services to be transferred from Northern Ireland to Britain. In 2018, point 50 of the final eu withdrawal agreement was omitted on the grounds that it was an internal matter in the UK. The final withdrawal agreement for 2018 was originally approved by the British Prime Minister (Theresa May), but the DUP (whose minority government depended on confidence and supply support) vetoed a parliamentary vote in January 2019.  The Protocol on Northern Ireland should be welcomed in some respects. It gives Businesses in Northern Ireland the certainty that trade relations with the EU (including kings) and Britain will remain virtually unchanged until the end of the transition period. For NI companies that trade only on the island of Ireland, the withdrawal agreement will ensure security on the status quo (including free market access for EU goods) after the end of the transitional period and regardless of the conclusion of a free trade agreement between the UK and the EU. The Protocol on Ireland and Northern Ireland will come into force at the end of the transitional period. It was designed as a stable and sustainable solution and can be expected to apply alongside any agreement on the future partnership.
Negotiations between civil servants resulted in a draft agreement that was to be finalised at a meeting between Jean-Claude Juncker and Theresa May on 4 December 2017 in Brussels. There has been progress in financial settlement and civil rights, but the meeting was interrupted after the Northern Ireland Democratic Unionist Party opposed agreements for the Irish border.  The Irish government and the northern Irish nationalists (favourable to a united Ireland) supported the protocol, while the Unionists (who preferred the United Kingdom) opposed it. In early 2019, the Westminster Parliament voted three times against ratifying the withdrawal agreement, rejecting the backstop. The Northern Ireland Protocol replaces the current plan, the so-called “backstop” Plan, negotiated by former British Prime Minister Theresa May. Under a pull scheme, the Northern Ireland Protocol, there is no need to control goods along the Irish border when the new uk-EU relationship begins on 1 January. How does it work? On 13 November 2018, a modest speech was presented in the House of Commons calling for the release of legal advice given to the government on the proposed EU withdrawal agreement. The government`s response was presented to Parliament on December 3 by Attorney General Geoffrey Cox. However, the next day it was considered incomplete by MPs, which resulted in a vote in which, for the first time in history, the UK government failed to respect Parliament.
 In order to avoid a border between Northern Ireland and the rest of the United Kingdom, Article 6 of the Northern Ireland Protocol proposes that the United Kingdom and EU customs officers operate from the end of the transition period (December 31, 2020) until the parties agree on a satisfactory alternative for both parties.  The single customs territory between the UK and the EU does not apply to fish products: for example, fish transported from Britain to Northern Ireland would be subject to EU tariffs in the absence of a separate fishing agreement.  Protocol